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India's Population Conundrum!

India’s population growth is a concerning issue. The current population growth rate being 1%, implies India will be adding over 13 million people in the current year. The life expectancy is 69.42 years, and the death rate is 7.3 per thousand. Although the fertility rate has been falling in India, yet the birth rate is much higher than the death rate compared to other countries.

India's current population estimated to be 1.412 billion people being almost 17.7% of the world's population. We are nearing China whose population is 1.426 billion and has 18.47% of the global population. “India is expected to surpass China as the world's most populous nation by 2024 and is expected to reach a total population of 1.5 billion by 2030 and 1.66 billion by 2050 way ahead of China’s 1.317 billion people by the middle of the century. Currently, both countries account for nearly 40% of the global population.”, the UN said.

The UN’s World Population Prospects, 2022 report revealed, the world’s two most populous regions in 2022 are Eastern and South-Eastern Asia, with 2.3 billion people, representing 29% of the global population, and Central and Southern Asia, with 2.1 billion, representing 26% of the total world population. The report also added that it is estimated that ten countries experienced a net outflow of more than 1 million migrants between 2010 and 2021.In many of these countries, these outflows were due to temporary labour movements, such as for Pakistan (net outflow of -16.5 million during 2010-2021), India (-3.5 million), Bangladesh (-2.9 million), Nepal (-1.6 million) and Sri Lanka (-1 million).

For India, it’s more challenging with a large population, prevalent job crisis and climate change directly affecting its limited resources. Poor livelihood has encouraged the country’s poor and illiterate population reproducing at a higher rate than their middle- and high-income counterparts, to have more earning hands until they realise it backfires in the long run. Simultaneously, due to climate change resulting in weather extremes, around the globe, there is an increase in Internally Displaced Peoples (IDPs). Naturally, the term climate refugees has gained traction.

India home to 18% of the global population has only 4 percent of its water resources. According to an IMF research, India had nearly eradicated extreme poverty by 2020-21 when food subsidies are considered in. However, the per capita nutrition supply in India is among the lowest in the world.

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